The authors believe that the figure serves a useful purpose in demonstrating the complexity of the actual situation. Papalexi, M. (2017), “An investigation into the aspects of innovation within the downstream domain of the pharmaceutical supply chain”, PhD thesis. University of Huddersfield. Basit, T. (2003), “Manual or electronic? Two restaurant chains may have similar concepts, similar menus, and similar go-to-market strategies, but one may regularly outperform the other. To what extent the delivery system that you have been involved is effective? Besides, the data analysis concluded that waste within the PSC is generated due to the lack of communication and synchronisation between the PSC stakeholders. Hospital pharmacies in both countries tend to receive their medicine supplies twice per day; they have set up a contract with a couple of big wholesalers, which enable them to negotiate the prices and get a better offer. “If there is one word that sums up the essence of supply chain management, it is transparency,” says Frank Lucero, III, vice president of supply chain for SpenDifference. There is a slightly different view in healthcare organisations in Greece; they tend to keep patients in hospital to avoid any risks associated with their health, although they acknowledge that this practice is too expensive, as 14/Gr explained. Carla Reed is a seasoned supply chain professional with more than 25 years of experience providing leadership and program management across a variety of programs for the life sciences industry. 12 No. 7, pp. Specifically, 6/UK explained that: […] the main waste comes from the wards; medication is returned to the pharmacy on a daily basis […] either because the treatment has changed or because patients left the hospital, without having taken their medication with them. Successful chains hire the best talent available in each specialty area, from strategically sourced protein categories to logistics and distribution management. In addition to this, the study focusses only on the downstream domain of the PSC, which excludes those specialists operating within the upstream and central PSC domain. 217-230. 73, pp. Considering the lack of communication and synchronisation existing between the PSC stakeholders and in particular between the physicians and the clinical staff (Bhakoo et al., 2012), one could appreciate the communication issues occurring due to the involvement of multiple prescribers in the system. On the other hand, community pharmacies are not in a privileged position where they can set up contracts with their suppliers, but they tend to create collaborations between them or alternatively have their own wholesaler company and supply their stores. Similarly, UK community pharmacists (e.g. 119, pp. This study raises awareness of these factors for healthcare organisations to avoid them or opt to convert them to their advantage. The UK healthcare system emphasises on developing the primary healthcare settings to promote health and deal with disease at an early stage (Lionis et al., 2009). Bhakoo, V., Singh, P. and Sohal, A. and Francke, A.L. 47 No. Kongar, E., Haznedaroglu, E., Abdelghany, O. and Bahtiyar, M. (2014), “A novel IT infrastructure for reverse logistics operations of end-of-life pharmaceutical products”, Information Technology and Management, Vol. Uthayakumar and Priyan (2013) suggested that these skills could solve inventory management problems and as a result improve the healthcare operations. As the NHS in Greece has not developed a well-established primary care, patients tend to trust more the private primary care providers. 82-101. Relying on procurement generalists will never achieve the same results as a team with a full range of critical competencies. A comparative analysis of household waste medicines and batteries reverse logistics systems, Evolving functional perspectives within supply chain management, Design of a pharmaceutical supply chain network under uncertainty considering perishability and substitutability of products, Challenges and opportunities in enterprise-wide optimization in the pharmaceutical industry, http://creativecommons.org/licences/by/4.0/legalcode, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Health Data (2018), www.gov.uk/government/publications/making-best-use-ofmedicines-report-of-a-department-of-health-roundtableevent-hosted-by-the-king-s-fund, www.gov.uk/government/publications/department-of-health-corporate-plan-2013-14/department-of-health-2013-14-corporate-plan, http://ec.europa.eu/health/human-use/legal-framework/index_en.htm, www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/Brochure/2014/08/WC500171674.pdf, https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statisticsexplained/index.php/Healthcare_personnel_statistics__dentists,_pharmacists_and_physiotherapists, www.the-scientist.com/news-opinion/the-uk-pharmaceutical-industry-braces-for-brexit–64926, www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/medical-waste-management-market-1256.html, www.oecd.org/health/health-systems/Health-Spending-Latest-Trends-Brief.pdf, https://data.oecd.org/healthres/health-spending.htm, www.statista.com/statistics/280572/medicine-spending-worldwide, The institutional and regulatory pressures, Difficulties in predicting the exact demand for medicines, Difficulties in predicting the patient mix, The particular characteristics of medicines, • “It is hard to undertake any improvements when you try to minimise the cost of the service that we offer. (2011), “Nurse prescribing of medicines in Western European and Anglo-Saxon countries: a systematic review of the literature”, BMC Health Services Research, Vol. 41 No. Greenwood, D., Tully, M.P., Martin, S. and Steinke, D. (2019), “The description and definition of emergency department pharmacist practitioners in United Kingdom (the ENDPAPER study)”, International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy, Vol. This is because more medicines are likely to be prescribed and therapies stopped or changed. It is apparent, therefore, that the stakeholders involved within the PSC require expert knowledge to be able to best use the healthcare organisational resources, avoid the duplication in services and as a result improve customer satisfaction (Radnor et al., 2012). Brandon-Jones et al. 55-73. Are there any improvement approaches been applied within the delivery process that you are involved? © SpenDifference, a subsidiary of Foodbuy LLC, 2020. 16 No. The authors also recognise that the qualitative data could have generated different data patterns that could be used for inspiration for conducting further future research. The Department of Health (2011, p. 6) reported that one of the main root causes of medicine waste derived from therapies being stopped or changed because of ineffectiveness and side effects, which is one of the reasons why medicine optimisation is such a huge agenda. Tukamuhabwa, B., Stevenson, M. and Busby, J. “During a crisis, many firms might focus more strongly on survival and less on seeking out new opportunities” (Archibugi et al., 2013, p. 306). 12 No. Davenport, T.H. 41 No. (2017) and extend the work of previous studies e.g. Davies and Edwards (2013) highlighted that the continuous growth of the pharmacy sector (and the extended role of pharmacists (Greenwood et al., 2019)) requires more qualified pharmacists, without taking into account the lack of management modules during their degree. What are the drivers of sustainable medicines recycling in national health service hospital pharmacies (UK)?