The weevil Larinus planus also feeds on the thistle and has been used as a control agent in Canada. Canada and Canadian thistle are in wide use in the United States, despite being a misleading designation (it is not of Canadian origin). [2][3][4][5] The standard English name in its native area is creeping thistle. The seeds are called achenes. tomentosum Becker, 1828, Cirsium arvense var. [39] It may therefore not be a desirable control agent. In Canada, C. arvense is classified as a primary noxious weed seed in the Weed Seeds Order 2005 which applies to Canada's Seeds Regulations.[33]. A wide range of insects, including bees and butterflies, appear to be very fond of the flowers of Creeping Thistle. Plants systemically diseased with the rust gradually but surely die. Ecotypes may differ in the composition of epicuticular waxes that affect the rate of foliar herbicide uptake. Homemade Herbicide A homemade herbicide consisting of vinegar and salt may be effective at … Leaves are also used to coagulate plant milks etc. [6] It is also commonly known as Canada thistle and field thistle. Applying herbicide: Herbicides dominated by phenoxy compounds (especially MCPA) caused drastic declines in thistle infestation in Sweden in the 1950s. The female inflorescences are flask-shaped, 1-1.5 cm (0.4-0.6 in.) Leaves are alternate on the stem with their base sessile and clasping or shortly decurrent. Biological Control 86:28-35. http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200023656. It came to Canada in the 1600’s from Europe where it is called creeping thistle. The flowers are usually dioecious, but not invariably so, with some plants bearing hermaphrodite flowers. Canada Thistle or Creeping Thistle (Cirsium arvense) Aster Family / Thistle SubfamilyBy Thomas J. Elpel with additions by Pamela G. Sherman About Canada Thistle: Thistles belong to the Thistle Subfamily of the Aster Family, along with artichokes. This is regulated through a regulatory feedback mechanism depending on the pollination status of the plant. Flowers are purple to white, up to 1 inch (2.5 cm) long and 0.5 inch (1.3 cm) in diameter. Variation in leaf characters (texture, vestiture, segmentation, spininess) is the basis for determining creeping thistle varieties. Fragrance emission increases with age. Nutritious but rather bland, they are best used in a mixture with other vegetables. Hover flies are also commonly seen pollinating the flower heads of this plant. The inflorescence is 10–22 mm (0.39–0.87 in) in diameter, pink-purple, with all the florets of similar form (no division into disc and ray florets). Mature Canada thistle plants are 30 to 150 cm tall with several branches. Cirsium arvense subsp. It it also different from other native North American species given its large roots and multiple small flower heads on a branched stem, Its underground structure consists of four types, 1) long, thick, horizontal roots, 2) long, thick, vertical roots, 3) short, fine shoots, and 4) vertical, underground stems. argenteum (Vest) Fiori, Cirsium arvense var. Small birds, and in particular Goldfinches, feed on the seeds of this plant. [40] Also Puccinia punctiformis is used in North America and New Zealand in biological control. Flowering occurs in late June to August. Control methods include cutting at flower stem extension before the flower buds open to prevent seed spread. [35] Its larvae parasitize the seed heads, feeding solely upon fertile seed heads.[36]. We hope that you have found this information helpful. argentatum (Vest.) C3 plants lose 97% of the water taken up through their roots to transpiration. PLANTOPEDIA: Browse flowering plants by Scientific Name, Common Name, Genus, Family, or Origin. Differences can be seen in their R-protein mediated defenses, sensitivities to abiotic stresses and developmental timing. Plants are often dioecious (bearing either male or female flowers), and pollination is mainly by insects; however, Creeping Thistle also spreads vegetatively via its root system to produce some very large clonal colonies. [27][28][29], The flowers are visited by a wide variety of insects such as bees, moths, wasps and beetles[30] (the generalised pollination syndrome). This was seen in both natural plants emitting the fragrance and emitting the scent synthetically. All rights reserved. (2013) Successful establishment of epiphytotics of Puccinia punctiformis for biological control of Cirsium arvense. Each head contains an average of 100 florets. Disclaimer, e-mail: [email protected] Aceria anthocoptes feeds on this species and is considered to be a good potential biological control agent. horridum Wimmer & Grab. P-anisaldehyde is found in less than 1%, yet it attracts pollinators such as honey bees. Stems are 30–150 cm, slender green, and freely branched,[17] smooth and glabrous (having no trichomes or glaucousness), mostly without spiny wings. & Grab.) Traditional uses and benefits of Creeping Thistle, https://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=36335#null, https://pfaf.org/user/plant.aspx?LatinName=Cirsium+arvense, http://www.floracatalana.net/cirsium-arvense-l-scop, https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=CIAR4, https://www.invasiveplantatlas.org/subject.html?sub=2792, https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/cirarv/all.html, https://www.eddmaps.org/ipane/ipanespecies/herbs/cirsium_arvense.htm, https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?100755, http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=413, http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/gcc-106632, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cirsium_arvense, https://www.fs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE_DOCUMENTS/stelprdb5410109.pdf, http://www.eu-nomen.eu/portal/taxon.php?GUID=1F1E43F3-6AB7-4920-83D0-2F53C2D7AACA#collapse, https://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Creeping%20Thistle.html. Biological Control 86:28-35. http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200023656. They should be sown at a depth of 0.12 inches (3 mm). Nonnative honeybees are shown to have the highest visitation rate, following other bee species such as halictus and lasioglossum. [19] Florivores such as Beetles and Grasshoppers are commonly seen as well. Genus: Cirsium, Color: Purple to white [42] The procedure for establishing this control agent involves three simple steps and is a long-term sustainable control solution that is free and does not involve herbicides. Cirsium, the genus name, comes from Greek and means a kind of thistle. The taproot is considered the most nutritious part. [31], The species is widely considered a weed even where it is native, for example being designated an "injurious weed" in the United Kingdom under the Weeds Act 1959. Its leaves are divided and spiny, and its stems do not have wings. High antennal response are seen in consequence to the phenylacetaldehyde as well as the terpenes (oxoisophoroneoxide, oxoisophorone, and dihydrooxoisophorone) found in the blend. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); POLICY Our commitment to Equality, Diversity & Inclusion (EDI), Different types of protected wildlife sites. It differs from other species in the same genus given its dioecious flowers. in diameter, and have a white to light brown pappus attached, 0.09 to 0.2 inch (2.4-5 mm) long, and 0.04 inch (1 mm) in diameter with a pappus of feathery bristles, Spermatophytina  (spermatophytes, seed plants, phanérogames), Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.