Each time, you take the exact same path that leads you to the highest peak ever recorded, but somewhere in the middle of your journey, you choose a slightly different route. computer. Used to link tables together in a relational database. We call this O(n). The author has released all rights to work. This makes a good glossary for an introduction to computer science. Computer can easily multiply 2 super large numbers without spending significantly more computer time than small numbers. Process of executing a program one line at a time so that the programmer can see what is happening at each line. Familiarize yourself with these 25 computer science terms to wow your classmates and teachers from day one. Note: Big O notation represents the worst-case scenario of an algorithm. Finding the original factors of a number is hard. (Infographic), How To Create A Website: The Definitive Beginner’s Guide [Infographic], How To Build A WordPress Website: Step-by-Step Tutorial For Beginners, 10 Sites To Make Free Photo Slideshow Online With Music. Sampling is the process of recording analogue signals at regular intervals. Instead of always climbing upwards, you occasionally move to a lower point and explore other paths, to reducing your chance of taking the wrong path. For other field-related glossaries, look at the vocabulary section oft his blog. What does it mean? [MDESE, 2016], A representation of some part of a problem or a system. Accessibility standards that are generally accepted by professional groups include the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0 and Accessible Rich Internet Applications (ARIA) standards. Your goal is to reach the summit, but it’s impractical to climb Mount Everest over and over again. I give you your clean clothes and say, “Here are your clean clothes.”. The hill climbing algorithm attempts to find a better solution by generating a neighboring solution. To make your trips easier, you have downloaded a hiking app that track paths you’ve taken and measures your current altitude. Credit belongs to the original authors, especially to Peter Day, from whose glossary most of the terms were collected. Pararth Shah wrote a brilliant analogy here, but it’s too long to be included. You are too lazy to count, so you ask the person in front of you. All Rights Reserved. Many commands put together make up algorithms and computer programs. temperature) and converts it into a signal. They probably don’t know each other at all. Someone transfers $500 to you and you withdraw $300 from ATM. Sharing identical keys works fine among 2 people. You can use their works as you wish. [Wikipedia]. When you write code for an event handler, it will be executed every time that event or action occurs. However, the person in front of you did exactly the same thing, and so on. The defining characteristic of data that is represented in a continuous, physical way. Values which should be rejected by the program. A monitor for a specific event or action on a computer. Imagine 100 people visit your little bookshop at the same time. The K–12 Computer Science Framework is licensed under Creative Commons (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) . All of them look perfectly normal. A single byte is 8 bits-worth of data. In the meanwhile, you are still using the bucket to drain the water. 3 groups of statements that control the flow of the program's execution. Feel free to suggest any new computer science theories or concepts to add, those that you think is important and often confusing. © 2020 Virtual Writing Tutor Blog. Stores results of all arithmetic operations. Next, you wonder why you suck at estimating development time: And methodologies are often implemented wrongly: So here you go. Glossary of Computer Related Terms. After a while, you see that the leak is much bigger that you need a plumber to bring bigger tools. An error in a software program. Big data describes data sets so large and complex that is impossible to manage with conventional data processing tools. editor A method of sending information using telephone or television cables. An extra piece of information passed to a function to customize it for a specific need. Way of classifying data to tell the computer when we are using the type of data. At the same time, transaction B also tries to add your $500 to Peter’s account. Both wait for each other to complete. Peter transfer $1000 to you (transaction A) and you transfer $500 to him at the same time (transaction B). So you ask the kid to: Oh wait, The kid didn’t even remove his/her clothes before entering the shower! Just keep in mind that access to a bank account is locked whenever there’s an ongoing transaction. They make 2 identical (symmetric) keys for the lock and meet up to share the keys beforehand. From the experiments, we know that online shopping scales better than online downloading. Eventually, you can’t cope with your job because there’s too much data entry tasks. Someone in a movie theater asks you what row you’re sitting in. by Nicholas Walker, under field-related glossaries, Vocabulary Computer Science means the study of the principles and use of computers. Then, transaction A tries access your account to add the $1000 from Peter. A contraction of "Binary Digit". [TechTarget], A system design in which a component is duplicated, so if it fails, there will be a backup. An identifier name should indicate the meaning and usage of the element being named. A physical or wireless attachment between multiple computing systems, computers, or computing devices. To make sure nobody can see their stuff, they lock it with a box. Contains an editor with an interpreter and / or compiler with debugging tools. Doing something on the internet, usually again and again, to make another personal feel angry, sad, or scared. A string might represent, for example, a name, address, or song title. Holds the address (locations) of the next instructions. See computational artifact for the definition used in computer science. It’s Mount Everest, the biggest challenge you’ve ever faced. Identifiers associated with values that remains fixed during the program's execution. She will need to keep and manage 10 different keys! The output is constant. So I go out and hail a taxicab and tell the driver to take me to this place in San Francisco. Data can be digital or nondigital and can be in many forms, including numbers, text, show of hands, images, sounds, or video. Let’s assume you have a leak in a water pipe in your garden. [FOLDOC], The process of creating something new from something old. Process of encoding data stored on a computer or messages sent across in a network. We are yet to discover an efficient algorithm that can find the factors of a number easily. Suggest a better one if possible! The basic principle is: everyone has their own private key to decrypt message, and they will provide senders their own public key for message encryption. Removes some data from the original data. Translates source code into machine code, line by line. audience: Expected end users of a computational artifact or system. Hacking is similar to breaking into a house. [Tech Terms], A special kind of variable used in a procedure to refer to one of the pieces of data received as input by the procedure. What if I ask you: Could p possibly be 7? Let’s assume that O(1) and O(n) are the worst-case scenarios of the example above. [ACM, 2006], Any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating algorithmic processes. Special purpose computers that is embedded in another device to control actions or features of that device. Data that is arranged in an organised, defined way. You have to answer phone calls, arrange meetings, typing documents, etc. Modifying a problem in such a way that it can be modeled or solved using a computer or machine. [MDESE, 2016], The characteristic of a software/web application that has been divided, The unit of data sent over a network.