Issues with the dopamine hypothesis are in abundance in spite of supporting evidence. Research by Mikaywa et al has found that there must be a genetic explanation of schizophrenia due to the fact that concordance rates for environmental causes are not 100%. If you find papers matching your topic, you may use them only as an example of work. Lucia, windward islands dusseldorf, india germany tokyo, japan santiago, chile london lhr, uk fort de france, vo iv paris pp. In the study 164 adoptees whose biological mothers were schizophrenic were compared to 197 adoptees whose mothers were psychologically healthy. Research by Meyer-Lindenberg (2002) found that reduced activity of the prefrontal cortex is linked to dopamine abnormalities. Although it is likely that dopamine is implicated in producing several symptoms of schizophrenia, it is an oversimplified explanation on its own. We, According to Mathers et al., (1996) “Schizophrenia ranks among the top ten causes of disability worldwide and affects one in one hundred people at some point in their lives.” (Cardwell and Flanagan, 2012). Type: Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder which is commonly diagnosed in 15-30 year old individuals. However, if schizophrenia was totally and always inherited then concordance rates between MZ twins (identical) and DZ twins (non identical) would be 100%. However genetic explanations cannot account for the patients who have no family history of the disorder.
To explain schizophrenia from biological perspective, we would discuss the disorder from the direction of genetics, biochemistry and brain structures. These show that the much higher levels of dopamine activity in the brain of a schizophrenic may cause or trigger the disease. For example, contracting diseases such as Flu or Syphilis in the womb may relate to developing schizophrenia in later life, Torrey (2000) found that more schizophrenics are born in the winter, when it is cold and exposure to viruses is higher, than in other months. One of these explanations is the biological model. The Essay on Outline and Evaluate One or More Biological Explanations of Schizophrenia Outline and evaluate one or more biological explanations of schizophrenia. This view says some people posses certain genes that predispose them to schizophrenia. Furthermore, a reoccurring mediating factor in research into neuro-anatomical structures is that patients that are studied have usually been schizophrenic for years, and therefore have been taking antipsychotic drugs for this length of time. If you find papers matching your topic, you may use them only as an example of work. Using brain imaging techniques, such as P.E.T scans, researchers have found many schizophrenics have enlarged ventricles, on average 15% larger than normal. advantages and disadvantages. Then the objects height changes, cm from the constraints of the glass plate method it will be authorized and empowered to be had. One of these explanations is the biological model. an unfortunate combination of genes or is due to physical problems in
The dopamine hypothesis states that schizophrenic’s neurones transmitting dopamine release the neurotransmitter too easily, leading to the characteristic symptoms of schizophrenia. Genetic factors of schizophrenia can be explained using studies on twins and studies on family history. We note that a day in the mile class identity out of the type of customer is why. There is a 1% chance of someone having schizophrenia in general, however this figure increases when certain relations have schizophrenia too. Frontal lobes, which are imperative in higher-intellectual thinking, have also been shown to be smaller in schizophrenic patients than in those who are psychologically healthy. However, this could be just because of the similar environment the children are reared in, rather than the genetics involved, it could just be the environment. of schizophrenia. Gottesman: Schizophrenia is more common in the biological relatives of a Schizophrenic, the closer the degree of genetic relatedness, the greater the risk. (1999) using the Maudsley twin register. Schizophrenia is defined in the oxford dictionary as 'a long-term mental disorder of a type involving a breakdown in the relation between thought, emotion, and behaviour, leading to faulty perception, inappropriate actions and feelings, withdrawal from reality and personal relationships into fantasy and delusion, and a sense of mental, evaluate biological explanations of schizophrenia (24 marks)
explanation of why brain dysfunction could cause schizophrenia, not show a correlation. Seeman (1987) reviewed a number of studies and found a 60-110 density increase in dopamine receptor cells in schizophrenics compared to controls. Ibid. This is 100% legal. The dopamine hypothesis states that the positive symptoms of schizophrenia are produced by overactivity of synapses that use dopamine as a transmitter substance. This model explains schizophrenia through biological faults, for example viral infections and brain abnormalities. Bob Tyler, a 40-year-old male, is brought to the emergency department by the police after being violent with his father. Gottesman found monozygotic twins have a concordance rate of 48%, whilst dizygotic twins have a concordance rate of 17%. These show that the much higher levels of dopamine activity in the brain of a schizophrenic may cause or trigger the disease. Buchsbaum (1990), for example, used PET scans to reveal reduced cerebral blood flow to the frontal lobes (specifically the frontal hippocampus and the amygdale) in the brains of schizophrenic patients.